根據外媒《CBS NEWS》的報導，美國駕駛的開車里程數，已經連續 5 年上揚，然而死亡車禍也跟著上揚，
美國去年有 4 萬人在車禍中喪失，是 10 年來的最高點，儘管駕駛們都知道開車收發訊息是不對的，
但即使是以時速 70 英里（約時速 112 公里）行駛狀態下，
也有可能因為分心而導致車禍，根據這份調查結果，如果不分心，那麼可以減少高達 36% 的事故發生率。
美國國家科學院也列出最容易讓駕駛分心的 5 種行為。
第 5 名：操作廣播頻道
這項設備早在 1930 年代就已經出現在車子裡，然而現在就算是操作再簡單的車輛，
也會需要透過 iPod、Mp3 播放器或是光碟片來操作，這行為會讓風險增高 1 倍。
第 4 名：使用觸碰螢幕
卻無形中鼓勵駕駛更常操作此功能，讓風險提高 4.6 倍。
第 3 名：發送簡訊/訊息
很多人以為開車發簡訊的危險是最高的，其實不然，但發送簡訊的風險仍然相當高，提高了 6.1 倍，許多青少年更為了發簡訊給朋友們而發生車禍。
第 2 名：在車內伸手拿物品
容易因此看不到後視鏡及前方狀況，使得車輛偏移車道而發生危險，風險提高到 9 倍。
第 1 名：撥打電話
風險最高的，莫過於駕駛在開車時撥打電話，風險程度達到 12.2 倍，來自美國國家安全委員會的資料指出，
2014 年美國有 26% 的交通事故跟撥打電話有關，無論駕駛是採用免持聽筒或是手持撥打，都有著極高風險。
The 5 worst things you can do while driving sober
Automotive highway deaths in the U.S. last year are estimated to have topped 40,000,
which would be the highest total in nearly a decade. Accident rates are soaring as well.
As the cost of car crashes increases, auto insurance companies – never slow to take notice
– are boosting premiums for all of us, even those who drive safely.
Part of the problem is simply that Americans are driving more.
Miles driven nationwide rose for the fifth year in a row,
setting a new record. Motorists traveled 3.2 trillion miles, or more than 17 trips to the sun and back.
Worryingly, however, the number of deaths as a percentage of miles traveled rose even faster,
which suggests a bigger problem: Many people behind the wheel are distracted
by all the enhanced technology that car makers have loaded into their vehicles.
Insurance companies are alarmed, with Safe Auto’s Mike LaRocco
calling the rise in distracted driving an “epidemic.”
The worst part of any widespread threat – particularly one that kills 40,000 people a year
– is that no one bothers to take precautions against it. Everyone knows it’s wrong
to send or receive a text while driving, but surveys show that most drivers are likely
to reach for their phones when they hear that tantalizing alert – even when driving at speeds of 70 miles per hour.
A recent study by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) quantifies the distractions
we encounter when driving, even when we’re in perfect health and totally sober.
The survey claims that 36 percent, or 4 million of the nearly 11 million crashes annually in the U.S.,
would be avoided if no distraction was present.
This is their list of five such distractions, going from the worst to the very worst:
Operating the car radio while driving doubles the risk of a crash. Although we’ve been doing it
since radios were first installed in cars in the 1930s, we’re no longer talking about five push buttons
and a knob. Even a stripped-down model car has a multi-page manual of instructions on
how to operate an iPod or MP3 player and how to insert a disc.
Using a touch-screen menu, which virtually all newer cars have, increases the risk
by a factor of 4.6.Many of us are very adept at how to use a touch screen,
but this skill probably encourages the driver to do it even more.
Texting while driving is a bad idea, but surprisingly it’s not the worst even though
it gets the most attention. According to the NAS,
an accident is 6.1 times more likely to happen when texting.
Given the number of teenagers who text and the number of teen traffic fatalities,
it’s tough to argue with that.
Reaching for an object, such as your cell phone which just slid off the passenger seat,
is really bad because it takes the driver out of position. As the NAS puts it, a driver’s “eyellipse,”
or field of vision, is altered when the person moves.
That’s disorienting, particularly when the windshield and/or rearview mirrors float out of view.
Call this a factor of 9on the likely accident scale.
But by far the demon of all distractions is the good old-fashioned process of
dialing the 10 or more necessary digits on a cell phone.
This tops the scale by a factor of 12.2 – the greatest of any distraction observed,
according to the NAS. Hands-free? Maybe not so great after-all.
The National Safety Council reported in 2014 that any kind of cell phone
-- hand-held or hands-free -- was involved in 26 percent of all motor vehicle crashes.
(The study did not specifically address speed-dialing.)
The limitations placed on drivers who do more than just drive their cars
might make you yearn for the day when vehicles will be driverless.
After all, people cause 94 percent of all car accidents, according to the NAS.
But we’re not there yet. The study quotes a Rand Corp. report showing that
autonomous vehicles need to be driven “hundreds of millions” of miles” to show they’re fail-safe.